7 - Considering the Healing Arts
The practice of conventional medicine was found to be more conveniently managed if the body was treated as a collection of parts rather than as an indivisible whole Alternative medicine is now the guardian of an approach to health that claims that no part of the body can be made better unless the underlying cause is also discovered and treated ...
(John Lloyd Fraser The Medicine Men)
Before you begin with any sort of healing methods, even if you intend only to experiment upon yourself, you should consider very thoroughly the whole ethical situation, and realise that the knowledge of healing carries with it a very heavy responsibility. It might seem to be an excellent and commendable application of magical knowledge, in that you can offer healing arts to everyone around you, but consider.
In the ebb and flow of ordinary life people are being taught lessons, given training and hidden guidance as to how best to carry on their lives. Illness, as a subject of debate in psychological circles, is now being seen in a new light. It is sometimes considered as a 'teaching condition' rather than purely a discomfort or disruption to everyday life. A whole new aspect of health and disease is being looked at in that illnesses only strike us if we let them.
This might seem a curious statement; after all, no one really wants to be ill, do they? Look at it from a different angle. Being ill will permit you to take time off from a boring or perhaps stressful lifestyle; it will permit you to seek sympathy, help or comfort from those around you who perhaps take your activities for granted. Illness offers an opportunity to rest, to lie in bed longer than normal, to sleep, to be pampered, to eat chosen dishes rather than what the rest of the household prefers.
On a grander scale, it is considered by some psychologists that illness is a way of rebalancing our karmic debts. If we have harmed others in previous lives, the hurt they suffered comes to us as the pain of an illness or the disability of disease, rather than as direct action from them in their current life. If we have been tyrants or torturers, cruel slave drivers or even brutal to animals, perhaps this is how we are taught valuable lessons.
I don't accept that all illnesses are brought upon us by our wishing or permitting them to attack us, but certainly in some instances, when all things are fully considered, there is a factor of rebalancing karma to be considered. After all, the viruses and bacteria of most diseases are in the air around us every day. The stresses or chemical cocktails which may trigger changes in our bodies leading to cancers or arthritis will touch us as well as our neighbours who actually become ill with such disorders.
Do give these concepts a good deal of thought before you start trying any arts of healing. Think too about anything which you have suffered from in the last few years. When did it start? Was anything going on in your life which might have made you more vulnerable then? Have any of your family been ill because of their attitude to you, or your treatment of them?
Healing can take many forms, from a complete and speedy recovery from whatever ill the patient is suffering from, to an ongoing condition for which there can be no physical recovery, yet spiritual insight and a vast improvement in the quality of life may ensue. Some diseases or accidents can increase the sufferer's perception about the value of a normal life, a greater understanding of handicap or disability, and so a far greater sympathy with others disabled in a similar way.
Sometimes it is just a deeper understanding of the concept of 'health' or 'healing' and an expanded awareness of how multifaceted this idea may be. Every such experience will have all sorts of effects on the sufferer, and such matters must be taken into account by those who might come to offer healing or advice.
The important aspect of any form of health counselling or healing arts is that of treating the whole person, not just the painful area or symptoms. The holistic view underpins many of the alternative therapies which have become popular and more readily available in the last few years. These include homoeopathy, spiritual healing, aromatherapy, reflexology, herbalism and naturopathic medicine.
Acupuncture and its associated forms of shiatsu, Touch for Health and even massage all treat the entire individual. Many of these healing arts, inherited from Far Eastern sources, acknowledge that everyone has a basic life force called ch'i which contains two components, Yin and Yang, positive and negative, male and female. Illness, pain or discomfort may be caused by a disruption of this essential flow of ch'i, or life energy.
Sometimes there is too little Yin and too much Yang, or vice versa, or perhaps the courses through which this energy flows, called meridians in English, are blocked or expanded. It is by applying very fine needles or pressure to certain points along these meridians that the energy is allowed to resume its balanced flow, healing not only the immediate pain or disease, but the whole patient, body and soul.
From another angle, recent research is showing us new things about the sensitivity of the human organism. Tests are indicating that people can actually detect invisible energies like radioactivity and ultrasound, and changes in the Earth's magnetic field. These unexpected results have been found by scientists examining the positions of ancient stone circles as part of the Dragon Project.
It is becoming clearer that the sorts of stones used in these monuments, their positions and the places in which they have been erected are all important, and show uncommon variations in natural levels of background radiation, for example, or strange pulses of ultrasound or magnetic anomalies. The researchers are convinced that the ancient people who set up the alignments were in some way aware of these variations, and used them to position or select the sites and materials used in them.
Just as people were sensitive to such unconsciously detected forces in the ancient world, they would certainly be sensitive to the increased doses put out by the activities of civilisation. This may be the underlying cause of many recurrent illnesses, or mental or physical conditions which appear to defy the healing powers of modern medicine.
The constant exposure to unnatural forces, low dose radiation both natural and caused by the nuclear industry, the chemical cocktails we consume along with our food and drink, the pollution in the very air we breathe, all are going to do us no good, and many may do actual harm, possibly resulting in cancers, bone and blood conditions which are very difficult to treat. Again, recent studies have shown that some forms of radiation can affect the children of fathers working in hazardous places, leading, perhaps, to an increased risk of leukaemia, or other serious conditions. The greatest problem is that we simply do not know what we may be exposed to throughout our lives!
Although the kind of medicine and healing practised by the old village witches probably did not cover the problems of today's world, nearly all the known treatments were holistic. Herbal medicine works on the entire person, not just the immediate area to which it is applied. Some forms of treatment act not only on the physical body but on the more subtle etheric level. (The etheric field around people is visible to most trained witches who look, in low light, at bare flesh against a dark background.
A narrow band of energy can be clearly seen. You can experiment by looking at your reflection in a mirror, concentrating around the edges of your skin against a lighter, or perhaps darker, plain background.) Beyond the narrow etheric, some people can train themselves to see the wide-spreading, rainbow-coloured filaments of the aura proper. This too can be an excellent indication of health and energy levels, being both brighter and larger in a well and balanced person than in a weary or sick one.
If you start to see auras clearly, when in a relaxed and meditative state, do remember that you are also looking through your own aura, and the colour you may see around someone else will be a combination of your colours and theirs. Look at the shape of the aura (which can be detected by dowsing even by those who cannot see it), how far it reaches upwards, how stripy or blotched with darker patches or specific colours, or spirals of lightness.
Some books try to attribute particular meanings to each of these features, but most people have very individual patterns and colours, so hard and fast rules should not necessarily be applied. Once you learn to detect this energy field around living people, animals, trees or even special stones, you will intuitively be guided to understand the significance of what you can see or sense.
You should try to learn control of your psychic senses at the same time as you are experimenting with seeing auras or sensing power about sacred sites, for it is possible to be too sensitive. If you are not able to 'deliberately switch off your sensitivity you may begin to find that your nerves become jangled and you start to feel oppressed in the presence of strangers.
This is just a matter of asking that your inner senses be under your own control. Traditionally, witches and magicians use a simple ritual, which is nearly always of a mental nature, to surround themselves with a fragile shell of temporary protection. In some older books novices are instructed to perform heavy banishing rituals about themselves, but these wipe away all human contacts and, rather than making the individual feel safer, make him feel extremely sensitive and vulnerable.
You only need to ask the Protective Goddess or the Guardian God to watch over you, or awaken your Higher Self to prevent your newly expanded senses from being overwhelmed, whilst gradually allowing you to adjust to greater skills and feelings as you become more experienced.
In the old days the villagers relied completely on the skills of the Wise Woman or Cunning Man to see them into the world, to help with illness or accidents, to heal their cattle or sheep, to improve the fertility of their land, to mend broken hearts, wreak revenge on enemies, to see into the future, and finally to see that their dead were decently laid out for burial.
Many of these aspects of the traditional crafts are now dealt with by a variety of trained people, but certainly helping with minor complaints, sorting out affairs of the heart, looking into the future or the past to help enquirers learn from their experiences, still fall well within the competence of many modem witches and magicians. Also, if you are willing and able to undergo proper training in herbalism, reflexology, hypnotherapy, aromatherapy, massage or homoeopathy, you will be using more recent methods, yet still treading in the healing footsteps of your forebears.
Do be discreet about your knowledge of healing, or of divination come to that, for it is very easy for fools to rush in where angels might fear to tread. If you let on at work that you know something about healing you may well be inundated with requests which could be beyond your competence, if you are still learning the arts.
Some people might expect miraculous effects, or prefer to take an amateur's advice or treatment, rather than seeking orthodox diagnosis or treatment. It is always best, except in very minor ills like colds or influenza, bruises and tiredness, to suggest that the sufferer gets expert advice before being exposed to whichever alternative therapy you happen to be learning. Certainly you can experiment on yourself but as you get your life under control, begin to gain insights and inspiration as to your path in life and access to those inner powers, you will probably improve your health, if it needed improvement, as you go.
The more magical forms of healing used by the Old Wise Ones include what might be called spiritual healing, the laying on of hands, distant healing and pure esoteric healing, possibly using a magical talisman or verbal spell. In every case you must follow some basic rules.
First you must be asked to help by the patient or someone responsible for them if it is a child, for example.
Secondly, try to find out exactly what is wrong with them, and if they haven't seen a doctor yet feel some sort of external healing agency needs to be applied, do encourage them to get at least a professional diagnosis. That could save their lives, if they are seriously ill!
Thirdly, tell them that you can only help them to get better - you are not the Creative Force, and they must work towards their own recovery, not simply rely on you, or a doctor, to cure them. Fourthly, go into the circumstances of their illness with them, seeing if there is an external reason for their condition, like their lifestyle, bad habits, stress from a job or family situation, or simply that they really need rest or a change of circumstances and being 'ill' is as good an excuse for having a few days off work as anything.
Try to get their cooperation in whatever you intend to do for them, obviously after you have received some training in the method. If you intend to use magic, spells or a talisman, do explain to them, as some people can be very shocked at the idea of 'witchcraft', often still seen as a series of evil arts, being applied to their health.
You can make things worse if a patient is led into an incense-filled room, where strange words are chanted over him and mystical symbols marked on his sore stomach with holy oil. You can scare people by being too physical as well; someone unused to being touched by other people, could find the experience of having his feet massaged, as in reflexology, a bit too weird! After all, you do want to help those who request healing, not scare the wits out of them.
If the sick person is there in person, you may be able to burn gold candles to request that the healing power of the sun may shine upon him, but actual sunshine will be just as effective. You may be able to massage away pain, or lay your hands upon him and ask that the restorative power of the Goddess or the God be felt through your touch, or you may simply counsel him on a more healthy lifestyle, while silently asking that healing flow into him.
If your partner cannot be there in person, you might act on a photograph or that earlier version, a wax image, which was far more often used for healing than harming, but you must still be specifically asked for help. Use your increased power of imagination, by seeing him well and happy. Make a talisman on a gold circle, calling on the health-giving power of the sun to lighten his burden, and bring him increased energy.
You can use the power of the waxing moon to aid a person's strength and resistance to disease, and the waning power to wipe away the pain, distress or complications, so that at any time you may begin your treatment. Always use your own psychic powers to discover where the real seat of any illness lies, rather than just treating symptoms, and ask that they understand the meaning of their illness. Because the moon rules our mental state, and almost all diseases have a mental component, in that a sufferer may simply be frightened at being ill, or he may be sick because he is so stressed or anxious that he catches something nasty, using her changing light in the healing will add an extra benefit.
Learn to be able to take your own pulse in your wrist or neck, gently, so that you can detect how much more or less relaxed you are after a meditation or ritual celebration. Teach yourself the simple art of brewing herb teas for calmness or energy. Study the uses of aromatic oils, incenses (which have always been an important aspect of the use of herbs), gums and resins. Find a supplier who will sell pure incense gums so that you can try each in turn, to see if you like the smell when you burn it on the special charcoal blocks. Make sure you don't use too much, about half a teaspoon is plenty to try, on half a charcoal block. Some incenses give off thick smoke and can make you cough, others may make your eyes run.
Some illnesses have a very great psychological effect, and it was to combat this that Dr Edward Bach, working in the 19405, developed his collection of potent flower remedies. Today, there are 38 used in Britain, but the USA and other places have developed expanded lists, using local herbs, trees and plants. These gentle remedies work by using what medieval herbalists called the 'virtue' of certain trees, flowers, shrubs or herbs.
Various parts of the plants are immersed in spring water, in sunlight, and preserved usually by the addition of a little brandy. They do not work directly on physical illnesses, but on the mental conditions which may underlie the problem. For example, if a child is frightened of failing an exam he may complain of a tummy ache or feeling sick. The flower remedy would work on the underlying fear rather than the expressed symptoms. Similarly, many adults suffer mental states, mild or severe, that can manifest as bodily illness.
In each case there is a specific plant which will quite slowly and gently alleviate the condition, allowing the strength of that person's character to overcome the actual disease or distress. These remedies are now widely available from good chemists, or health food shops or homoeopathic pharmacies. Some New Age centres also have specialists in the use of these Bach Remedies who can be consulted, or even run short courses about their effects and uses.
Do be aware, though, that many apparently simple forms of medicine or therapy can be very powerful even in the hands of the inexperienced. In aromatherapy, the essential oils which are vaporised, used in massage oil or applied to certain places on the body can be too strong, and some cause reactions in certain people. Do seek out some sort of training, and be willing to stick to one or two Systems until you are really competent. Learn about your own health, looking at every accident or serious illness you have suffered. Think back to the circumstances, the mental and spiritual as well as the physical situation that existed at the time.
Be willing to spend some time in meditation upon the triple concept of mind and body and spirit, for illness, both in yourself and others, may begin in any one of these areas. Today, we have lost our contact with the spiritual aspects of our lives, a loss that is not usually clearly felt, except perhaps by those who are seeking some sort of fundamental religious experience, often itself a clear sign of dis-ease within them. Many people have come to see that material comfort, even wealth, does not totally fulfil them, and that there is sometimes a deep longing for something which cannot be defined, so is all the harder to seek out.
Carl Jung recognised the power of this inner yearning, making the religious impulse as important as the sexual as one of the underlying drives which direct our actions. We all need goals to strive towards, and those who have become satisfied with a kindly partner, a good and rewarding job, a comfortable home still reach out for something else. Often these people are the ones who fall prey to the unscrupulous, selling some 'philosophy' or 'cult' to the unwary for a fat sum of money. What you should discover for yourself is that spiritual riches can only be gained by personal effort and the sweat of your own brow.
Most of the old-fashioned virtues are gifts of the spirit, like sympathy, patience, the ability to listen and comfort, becoming inwardly still and hearing the voice of the God/Goddess within for guidance or help. It only requires that you become a seeker after good, in whatever way you may define that concept. Reach out towards the best within your heart, the strengths that you do not yet recognise, the inner peace and tranquility which, once you have realised it for yourself, can easily and freely be passed on to others around you.
Learn to know that all round you, invisibly, there are 'angels' or powers who will listen, hear your requests and offer assistance, if you give them credence. This communication is vital if you are setting out to offer healing to others for it will advise when you can help, and warn when you would be wiser to hold back. It requires that you learn trust, both of your own growing abilities and of that silent voice inside your head which will gladly instruct and guide, if you are perplexed.
Relaxation is by far the most healing art you can learn, or share with others. It is an essential part of all magical work, for power can only be handled safely by one who is at peace and still within themselves because it will push against any resistance and cause discomfort. If you can train yourself to relax every muscle, starting from your feet, you will gain a valuable skill.
Sit in a comfortable but supportive chair, with your back straight and your head upright. Clench your toes for a pulse beat of three, then relax them, then the muscles under your foot; your ankles; your calves; knees and thighs; and all those great muscles in your stomach and bottom. Pull them in tightly for a count of three, and then let them relax totally so that you can feel no tension anywhere.
Continue with the muscles between your ribs, taking a deep breath and counting three and releasing it. Work thoroughly through all the tensions in your shoulders, neck, along your arms, your wrists and fingers, letting these take up a relaxed, slightly curled position on your knees or the arms of the chair. Pause and sense through every part of your body, again tensing and loosening anywhere where you detect stress. Finally, consider your face and the muscles behind your ears and in your scalp. Make faces, stretch open your eyes and mouth, wiggle your jaw, flex your neck, frown and wrinkle up your lips, then let the whole lot relax totally, gently closing your eyes.
The next part of this healing exercise is to ensure that your head feels balanced on your neck. You can train yourself to meditate or enter any of the magical states of mind with your head held upright. Tell it to stay put so that it doesn't impede your breathing, or roll to one side and disturb your mood. If you are meditating, your head will stay put; if you are slumbering, dozing or cheating, it will probably slump!
Next dedicate a few moments to your breathing. In most magical states this tends to slow down, so you can help the relaxation along by deliberately taking slow, deep breaths. If you can feel your own pulse in your wrist use that as an aid to this exercise, breathing in as you count ten beats, holding for six, breathing out for ten, holding out for six. This sort of thing is much harder to do than to read about, for it takes that other vital magical skill, concentration. Try it!
You need to be able to take at least ten long, slow breaths, using the 10:6:10:6 counts without strain (you might find you need to count more than ten, or perhaps less if you are not very well) as this will also help you relax. On its own this slow deep breathing can be very calming, and if you are under stress at work, or have to attend an interview, or go to the dentist, this simple relaxing procedure can save a lot of pain and distress. As you breathe out imagine a tide of pain, trouble or 'darkness', which represents anything you wish to get rid of, being breathed out like chimney smoke, to be dissipated into a clear sky, and a fresh cool draught of sunlight being breathed in, entering every part of you, to refresh and strengthen your inner self.
The third part of this valuable exercise is the mental aspect. Here you should focus your inner sight on a pleasing, unstructured scene. A garden of bright flowers, the sea washing onto a smooth, sandy beach, the wind in the grass or soft clouds drifting across a summer sky; any of these or something which is comforting and gentle should occupy your mind's eye. Again, be relaxed and if only colours or vague shapes will come, accept that.
You are trying to be at rest not creating difficult images to play with. Gradually you will notice, as the various stages of this useful experiment unfold, that your mind is feeling peaceful and dreamy, time has ceased and you are comfortable and warm. Begin to drift, simply watching not merely the pictures in your mind, but how you feel, how ideas are flowing past your point of awareness, or even that there is a delightful blankness and sensation of detachment. You have total control over this state and so long as you are content it will, with a fair bit of practice, remain around you.
Now is the time to begin to look at any health problems you have, seeking not the symptom but the root cause. You may sense the position of an old injury, or recall an event which led to some buried bad feelings which have caused you to have a 'pain in the neck'. You may realise that something you do to other people, seen as a vague colour or shape, is making you unwell. Again, try it and see what you can discover.
It is also a valuable exercise to lead a friend through this same technique, watching how they take up a relaxed (or even still tensed) position, seeing how their face relaxes and they sink into the warmth of calmness. You may see their eyeballs moving under their closed lids as they scan the peaceful scene you describe. Notice how their breathing changes, slows and may seem very shallow, because similar things should be happening to you, but your awareness of them will not be very clear.
Repeat any parts of the muscle relaxation sequence if you can see tension anywhere, and if they find this whole process very strange, stop at the point where they have got their faces relaxed, gently telling them to open their eyes and see how much better they feel. This alone can cure tension headaches, stiff necks and tired shoulders. It is good for weary eyes worn out by staring at VDUs all day, too, or too much TV!
If you have tried with a healthy friend a few times, you can feel confident if you are trying to help someone who is actually ill. You lead them to the very relaxed and detached state and then very carefully ask them about their illness. When it began, if they caught it from someone else, if they have had it before and, if so, how long it took to go away. Always keep the questions slow, gentle and light-hearted.
It is not a time for heavy amateur psychoanalysis, but a careful encouragement of the individual's relaxed frame of mind which might be able to divulge the real reason for their current state of discomfort. Even if you aren't getting results that way, you can suggest that they use their own healing powers, that they will discover what makes them feel better, what helps and what hinders. Allow this thought to sink in thoroughly, then gently lead them back to full awareness, still, hopefully, feeling a bit more relaxed and calm.
When you have mastered the more advanced skills of magical working you can, with a suitable patient, carry out this relaxation technique within your magical circle, invoking the healing power of the Sun God, or the Goddess of Healing to assist them. You can prepare a talisman using the information which they have given you about the roots of their illness, warding off stress, accidents or bacteria, applying your knowledge of the powers, colours, numbers and other symbolism of the planets.
If you are willing to use healing techniques upon yourself you will quickly be able to help others from your own experience. By gaining knowledge and experience first, and also opening up through methods like relaxation, you will add further dimensions to book learning or practical instruction. All your healing and magical knowledge should go hand in hand. You will realise that as you learn more about Nature, she will teach you how all sorts of ordinary things can be added to your therapeutic repertoire.
You will learn which things work best for the body, which for the mind and, most important in this hectic day and age, which assist with the spiritual discomforts many of us suffer from. The underlying problems will always be causes rather than symptoms. If a limb is broken then splinting it carefully will go a long way to alleviate the pain; if someone is unhappy and that is giving them stomach trouble or heart ache, you are dealing with a different dimension of disturbance, which, as in the old days, the village witch is capable of coping with.
Each day, seek a time of quiet, walking or sitting or resting, when you can talk to the Goddess, who certainly will be with you in your everyday round of work and relaxation. Now you can ask for healing, or if you are concerned about someone else, guidance as to what best to do for them. You may be inspired to make them a posy of flowers, write a poem, or a song. You might know that it is time for them to learn unaided some lesson about their lifestyle or past follies. You might even realise that no matter what you wish to happen, it is time for them, young or old, to pass on to a new life.
Allowing those who had completed their life span to pass on was also traditionally a matter for the wise woman or man; it is far more healthy to accept that a life is due to end and that peace and understanding should fall upon the person. If you accept, as many pagans do, that we all live many lives, it is really no worse than changing schools or moving house. Those who are not comforted by such a concept will find death more difficult to deal with, for they will feel pain, grief, and loss, just as you will, but knowing the essential spirit of a loved one will return after a due rest is a very beneficial point of view.
Many people, losing a close friend or relative, feel anger and a sense of outrage that their loved one has died and not them, but the Lords of Karma are not cruel. No one is taken out of life if they have things to do which will not wait. There is a logic, beyond human ken perhaps, but whatever happens, the Goddess, Giver of Life and of Rest, is leading that soul further on its journey towards the Light. Be strong and calm yourself, if you are able to be with the dying person, and tell them about the great adventure they may soon set out upon. Give them mental comfort, and pray that they have a gentle passing, in sleep.
If someone is dying and you are not there, light a new white candle and ask the Goddess to gently take them into her arms and bring them to the Garden of the Soul, where friends and loved ones will meet again. As the candle burns down, often the soul departs with a smile on their face, as if they can see the Light and those they love waiting.
How much you need to study will depend on your own ordinary state of health. If you are always well, then your healing studies may need to be applied to others. If you suffer frequent colds, allergies, headaches, back pain or general ill health, you will need to begin your practical work by considering what makes you unwell and what remedies or forms of alternative therapy you are willing to try.
In your Book of Illumination list all the occasions in the last year when you were ill and, if you can recall, what was going on in your life which might have contributed to the situation. If you have been generally healthy, decide why.
List a number of forms of therapy and what they consist of, trying to find holistic methods. Consider if you would like to learn one, and if so discover the training body which teaches it or, if it is a subject you can master alone, a book that will help you.
Learn to take your own pulse, in your wrist or throat, so that you can use this for 'biofeedback', taking your pulse rate before and after meditation or concentration exercises, or even after rituals or divination sessions. Count your breaths, and learn to concentrate on breathing slowly in and out whilst counting sets of pulse beats, so that you are unaware of anything else. Teach yourself to do this for two minutes and practise until you can concentrate for five minutes.
Start growing or collecting herbs, both for cooking (even if you happen to be someone who doesn't cook for yourself) and for healing and incense, dream improvement or relaxation. Try at least four different herb teas to see what they do for you.
Experiment with different forms of relaxation for meditation, for example sitting still, walking, lying on your back or side, slumped in an easy chair or whilst doing boring tasks, when your mind can freewheel around a topic. See which produces the most useful results.
Make a talisman for healing some aspect of the Earth as a whole, or that wisdom in the use of natural resources will dawn on those in power. Try to make it out of biodegradable materials, and bury it in a sacred place.
Discuss ill health with friends or the family. Get their views on the psychology of illness and wellbeing.
Start studying with a school or training scheme, even evening classes if you can, so that you have some serious instruction about a healing method. Keep quiet about your budding skills, or you may get more patients than you can handle!
There are many hundreds of excellent instructional and explanatory books on dozens of different alternative therapies or holistic healing methods so do check the library catalogue. After all, the old village witches were famed for their healing skills, using primitive methods.
Alice A. Bailey, Esoteric Healing (Lucis Press)
Fritjof Capra, The Turning Point (Wildwood House)
Larry Dossey, Space, Time and Medicine (Shambhala)
Murry Hope, The Psychology of Healing (Element Books)
Michael Howard, Traditional Folk Remedies (Century)
Carl and Stephanie Simonton, Getting Well Again (Tarcher)